# Laakso taagepera formula

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This formula is the reciprocal of a well-known concentration index (the Herfindahl-Hirschman index) used in economics to study the degree to which ownership of firms in an industry is concentrated. Laakso and Taagepera correctly saw that the effective number of parties is simply an instance of the inverse measurement problem to that one. Despite its conceptual centrality to research in comparative politics and the fact that a single measure—the Laakso–Taagepera index (N s)—is widely employed in empirical research, the question of what is the best way to “count” parties is still an open one. The Laakso—Taagepera index of the effective number of parties, while satisfying most of the requirements of this aggregate quantity, tends to produce unrealistically high scores for party constellations in which the shares of the largest parties exceed 50 percent, and can produce misleading results in several other situations. the seat allocation formula used, the ‘Break-even Percentage’ of votes (at which a party starts obtaining its proportional share of seats, or more) shifts upwards as M increases (Taagepera and Laakso, 1980). This means that at smaller M fewer parties tend to obtain representation. Taagepera (1984) has found that the effective number 1 Political parties & party systems: DPI~415 Readings: Caramani – Katz ch12 and Caramani ch 13 Newton and van Deth – Ch 12 Structure I. The definition and function of parties for Laakso and Taagepera (1979) has become the standard numerical measure for the comparative analysis of party systems, as it takes both the number of parties and their relative weights into account to compute a single value.

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effective number of parties in a system (see Laakso and Taagepera 1979). The formula weights the system-wide vote or seat proportions received by the parties to describe the system at large. In a formula, the effective number of parties (Neff) is: (Neff) = 1 / Σ pi 2 , where pi In line with Lijphart (1999), the Laakso-Taagepera index (Laakso and Taagepera, 1979) is used to measure the effective number of parliamentary parties. The index weights the parties according to their strength in terms of seats. Conceptually, with an increase in the effective number of parties in The Laakso-Taagepera index measures the effective number of parties (based on votes) in a party system at a given election: the formula is presented in Markku Laakso and Rein Taagepera, ‘“Effective” Number of Parties: A Measure with Application to Western Europe’, Comparative Political Studies, Vol. 12, No. 1 (1979), pp. 2–27; see ... The most widespread indicator of frag- mentation used in comparative politics is the ‘Eﬀective Number of Par- ties’(ENP), designed by Laakso and Taagepera (1979). Taking both the number of parties and their relative weights into account, the ENP is arguably a good parsimonious operationalization of the number of ‘relevant’ parties.

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nition of party ‘relevance’. We nevertheless adopt Laakso-Taagepera’s formula that allows us to give a degree of fragmentation of relevance in competition for government, rather than an absolute ﬁgure of parties considered as relevant for majority government formation. We also argue that with our Eﬀective Number Effective Number of Parties According to Laakso and Taagepera (1979) the effective number of parties is computed by the following formula: Where n is the number of parties with at least one vote/seat and the square of each party’s proportion of all votes or seats. The proportions need to be normalised such that,

Feb 06, 2018 · Explanation of how to calculate Laakso and Taagepera's (1979) "effective number of (electoral and parliamentary) parties" index. The most widespread indicator of frag-mentation used in comparative politics is the ‘Effective Number of Par-ties’(ENP), designed by Laakso and Taagepera (1979). Taking both the number of parties and their relative weights into account, the ENP is arguably a good parsimonious operationalization of the number of ‘relevant ’ parties.

by Laakso and Taagepera (1979) which provides for an adjusted number of political parties in a country’s party system. The idea behind this measure is to count parties and, at the same time, to weight the count by their relative strength. Measuring how many parties, weighted according to size, are in a party system in a given election, be easily converted into the Laakso-Taagepera measure.4 The effective number of parties (as well as the index of fractionalization) can be calculated on the basis of either the parties' vote or seat shares. The former is the better indicator of the long-term nature of the party system. It is affected by the operation of